Future of Family Tourism

Dr Ian Yeoman
Victoria Business School
 
The importance of family tourism
According to Schanzel, families with dependent children represent a significant proportion of the population and an important current and future market for tourism providers. Children and families form the closest and most important emotional bond in humans and it is this relationship that drives demand in tourism. It is estimated that families account for about 30% of the leisure travel market around the world.

Family Tourism: A Multi Disciplinary Perspective

Slow moving trends
Across the world demography is the slow moving or oil tanker trend that will shape the future of tourism whether it is demand or supply.  Single households are increasing in number  -  a pattern expected to continue for the foreseeable future. In OECD countries about 28% of households were occupied by single individuals in 2010, and it is expected to climb to over 43% by the 2030s. The most dramatic rises in singleton numbers will occur in the older age cohorts.  As longevity continues to rise, so too do we see adults marrying and having children at later ages. The average age of a mother at childbirth will reach 30.7 years by 2025, meanwhile, the mean first marriage ages stood at 32.2 years for men and 30.05 for women.

Grandparents are playing an ever more active role in family lives but are increasingly techno-savvy and dismissive of age stereotypes. We expect nearly a third of those aged 65+ to be social networkers by 2015. The ethnic market is growing in size and changing urban landscapes. In the UK, a survey by the Future Foundation found that nearly 80% of people now agree that children are financially dependent on their parents for longer than in previous generations. More, as the age at which adults buy their first property rises, so greater numbers of children are living in their parents’ homes into adulthood.  Family bonds are very strong (contrary to the urban myth of decline) with family meals eaten together most days of the week. According to children, families spend a lot of time undertaking group activities; over 80% of 7-15 year olds say that they regularly watch television, eat meals and go on days out with their parents. As society ages, the behaviours of ageless society dominate.  New attitudes and approaches to our extended lives will stimulate redefinitions of old age, middle-age and youth. An ageless society means grey (or rather, not-so-grey) dollar will carry burgeoning levels of commercial clout.   Too summarise, as Schanzel notes “there are several demographic trends that are slowly changing the structures in society leading to more complex and diverse family models. The resulting changes include increasing longevity leading to stronger multigenerational ties; trends to smaller families leading to stronger social networks outside the immediate family; and increasing blurring between various forms of partnerships”.

Family structures and grandparents
While most households may once have been classified as horizontal  -  whereby relationships with lateral relatives such as uncles, aunts and cousins were the most numerous  -  so many modern families now exhibit at least some adherence to a vertical model, one where several of our extended relationships are of the ascending type. Demographic patterns have, as it were, stretched families  -  with bonds frequently running through generations as much as across them. And thus it is becoming increasingly common for children to enjoy relationships with many of their grandparents (and, in cases, some of their great-grandparents too). According to the Future Foundation in the UK, over a third of 7-15 year olds saying that they spend a lot of time with their grandparents  -  a figure which we must expect to climb still higher as the 2010s progress. It is argued too that the post-recession landscape has elevated the importance of those grandparents who are in relative financial comfort, often to an extent far greater than that of their adult children.

 

As people live longer,  grandparents will most certainly become a more active and powerful force within the family group (particularly as incomes remain under pressure in the short-term future). This will stimulate a growing number of targeted offers, for example Key Camps grandparents go free” initiative. The new decade is, however, one in which branded dialogues with grandparents must be ever more sophisticated, where companies must acknowledge that millions of older consumers will be technologically savvy and resistant to traditional age stereotypes. For in the era of Gransnet and high50 ever fewer grandparents will respond to marketing images crafted in any other groove. By the middle of the current decade, forecasts that over a quarter of those aged 65+ will be using the mobile internet and close to a third will be social networkers; these figures will only progress in one direction.
Back to nature
Given the rise of urban centres, research by Zepple and Sibtain detects marked support for a style of living more in tune with nature and the countryside. It is, for example, overwhelming majorities of those in the family formation stage agree that children should know as much as possible about nature or think that families spend too little time outside. The Future Foundation report on Family Life reports just under half of UK adults, meanwhile, will agree that parents should in fact receive guidelines about how often their children should venture beyond the confines of the house. And this enthusiasm percolates into the youngest age groups too  -  with more than 60% of 7-15s expressing an interest for all things green. Here the smartphone revolution will make an important contribution, with apps like Leafsnap allowing individuals to identify plants and trees based on photographs captured on their mobiles. As the current decade progresses, we will most certainly see the arrival of several more tools promising to deliver comparable green-focused benefits, many in playful and thoroughly interactive manners.
But can we also foresee more and more brands showcasing their natural credentials or else supporting family or child-friendly initiatives which benefit the countryside or the environment more generally? Already we see, for example Disney’s Green Challenge attempting to boost engagement with, and awareness of, green issues among children in the US. Others will most certainly follow.

The nature of family holidays
As Schanzel says “Family holidays are perceived as opportunities for ‘quality family time’ that allow bonding to ensure the happiness and togetherness of the family, away from the distractions of everyday life. In fact, holidays are often the only time the whole family spends together for an extended period and seemingly offer a balance to family life at home. The reasons that families go on holiday then differs from those of general holidaying individuals. Family holidays are less about an escape or break ‘from’ home routines and more about spending time ‘with’ the family (including extended family) doing novel activities and creating positive memories. For children it is also imperative that family holidays involve social fun. Family holidays serve the purpose of (re)connecting people through tourism and can be seen as a social practice that involves networking, family capital formation and social obligation. However, holidays can also give rise to intra-family conflicts and added stresses that require much better understanding to ensure the holiday experience is a positive one for all family members”.

 

Family Tourism: A Multiply Disciplinary Perspective. Edited By Heike Schänzel, Ian Yeoman, Elisa Backer. Channelview, Bristol is now available. Please join for a the New Zealand book launch on the 3rd August at Victoria University RSVP

Can New Zealand be a true green destination that goes beyond tourist perceptions of 100% Pure?

Eco Paradise Scenario

New Zealand is a paradise of resources driving a land-based, export economy. In 2050, as the world suffers from scarcity of resources, eco-paradise is the new luxury and the New Zealand tourism industry benefits. However, society has taken the decision to conserve the future for the collective good, as resources and the land are important features of the Kiwi psyche. As a consequence, society and government know everything about you, what you do and when you do it. Individualism and freedom have been sacrificed. New Zealand is a high taxation economy with a high standard of living. It is an innovation economy, with a sustainable living ethos, moral conservatism, and controlled tourism demand and supply model which balances the economy with resources.

People will always travel and that wouldn’t disappear. But what are important is behaviour and the form of tourism in New Zealand in 2050. The Eco Paradise scenario is about responsibility – a world of eco-conscious, eco-friendly hotels and a world where Prime Minister John Key is greener than Shrek or Kermit the Frog (metaphorically). New Zealand would have social capital, pure authenticity and sustainable solutions to the impacts of climate change.  It’s a place where government would develop feasible policy options that positions tourism as New Zealand’s first and everlasting tourism industry. A place that is a first choice career, a first in the terms of quality, first in the terms of the environment, the first industry of New Zealand from a work and play perspective. Combined, these principles of being first make New Zealand’s tourism industry an everlasting proposition in which we protect the land, resources and experiences for future generations.

Why is such a proposition important?

Society has changed; all parts of the travel sector have re-evaluated their policies towards the environment. For example, the Dutch airline KLM has been experimenting with bio-kerosene since 2009 and started using it for its flights between Amsterdam and Paris in the summer of 2011 when it became legal to use the fuel for commercial flights. Air New Zealand has done the same. A fleet of electric buses developed by Hyundai and Hankuk Fibre, named the e-Primus, is operating on the streets of Seoul. Meanwhile, Eurostar won the 2012 PEA Award for “greenest transport” for its many environmental efforts.  Alpine Pearls is a series of environmentally friendly holidays in 24 regions in the Alps. They target the same market as travel agency Kuoni, which launched Ananea  -  a “collection of socially and environmentally responsible holidays”, including a variety of eco-options. Eco-ethical travelling does not merely refer to choosing the right hotel or airline. Respecting the environment also means selecting those travel options which offer a unique experience while valuing the authenticity of the destination and its inhabitants. For example, staying in a hotel built in the traditional style of the area, rather than in a generic skyscraper  –  or getting to meet the natives instead of bothering them with excessive noise and pollution. Camouflage Tree Hotel is a four metre-squared structure made from lightweight aluminium and clad in mirrored glass. For example, located in the forests of Sweden, the structure is designed to create feeling of being at one with nature and heat is generated using an eco-friendly source. This approach like others adds value, focuses on high yielding tourists and sustainable.

Imagine this happening in New Zealand

In the 2025 election the issue was New Zealand’s green future. Across the political spectrum the only debate was about the degree of resources and commitment. The elected government’s first piece of legislation was the passing of the 100% Pure New Zealand Act which establishes New Zealand’s low carbon economy based upon a controlled pathway motivated by resource maintenance and economic stability. The Act was necessary given the world’s problems of climate change refugees, wars over food supply, and the post peak oil economy. The Act formulates a number of policy levers and instruments that incentivise a Green Economy for business and consumers, educates for change, accelerates investment in Green technologies, facilitates adoption, and penalises “ungreen” behaviour. New Zealand’s real priority is to protect and develop its resources and land economies which are viewed by most of the world as the new gold. In spite of some dissenting voices, New Zealand has come to realise its only future is this Green pathway to the extent that people talk more about the environment than they do about rugby these days. Green is the kiwi psyche.

But we can go further; tourism has to be everyone’s business. Think of the future of hotels as your home. At one level, it’s about small bed and breakfast establishments providing local knowledge and authentic experiences. In 2011, Icelandic President Olafur Ragnar Grimsson launched a new tourist initiative which encouraged residents to open their homes for tourists. The President asked people to welcome visitors into their homes and tell them about the Icelandic “experience”. So, we should be doing the same.  Shouldn’t our leaders set the same example? It’s tea with Jerry Mateparae or dinner with Tuheitia Paki.

New products

The Department of Conversation has a fantastic network of back country huts, with a bit more  investment they could easily be more accessible, innovative and elegant allowing a tourist experience of glamping.

Glamping allows for a truly eco-friendly holiday but without all the potentially unpleasant aspects possibly associated with such an idea. Then there are podpads and yurts. At another level, tourists will have emotional satisfaction in self-consciously limiting the damage they might cause by holidaying; some of them will also try to actually add value by going on a trip. In early 2012, the travelling website TripAvisor asked 700 travellers from the USA about their travelling behaviour. 24% of them claim to have considered a volun-tourism trip while 3% say they have already taken one. Only 16% were unfamiliar with the concept.  Volun-tourism refers to a type of travelling which includes volunteering for a good cause. Depending on the individual’s endurance, volun-tourism can vary from low-skill work (eg cleaning wildlife areas) to more intensive tasks, such as providing medical aid. Yet basically, what all volun-tourism trips have in common is the traveller’s incentive to help or improve someone or something, while getting to know new places and people. While the concept is still a niche market, it seems like volun-tourism holds appeal for many.  New Zealand can be that volunteer destination of the world. In a future world, if volunteer tourists  could be exempt from any taxes if they put something back into the community. Tourists offer so much potential, it’s just a matter of harnessing that capital.

Corporate accountability

On the corporate front, tourism providers internationally take a responsible approach. Since 2011, hotel chain Travelodge has been giving its customers the option to make small digital donations each time they book a room. Guests are invited to round up the total cost of their booking to the nearest pound, with the extra money being shared between a number of good causes supported by the hotel chain.

My holiday in 2050
I remember my Granddad saying, travel once-upon-a-time was virtually free and accessible to all. Granddad would think nothing of a cheap weekend in Paris flying with a low cost carrier. Those were the days. Mr and Mrs Kapil Kumar’s time has come. Their permit has been granted based upon four years of personal carbon credit travel allowances and a daily ecotourism luxury tax. Because long haul flights cost so much and people have to save hard for the flight, the flight itself is treated as a special occasion. Mr Kumar is wearing his best suit. Mrs Kumar went to a beauty therapist to have her makeup done the morning before the flight. Their extended family even went to Delhi airport to wave them goodbye for their long flight to New Zealand. The couple would have normally holidayed in Asia because of the excellent public transport system connecting the major cities of the continent. The Kumar’s desire to visit New Zealand has been based upon a personal fulfilment, infatuation with wellbeing, and high sensitivity to environmental and social issues. To the Kumar’s New Zealand is a rich and worthwhile experience which is explicitly ethical. During their month long stay they are keen to experience a Maori cultural show. In order to minimise the impact of the holiday on the environment, the couple decide to hire a luxury self‐propelled airship with all the mod cons. The airship allows the couple to visit many places across the country deemed inaccessible by road. The airship’s shuttlecraft transports them to Fiordland, to places like George Sound, Breaksea Sound, Resolution Island and Puysegur Point. Local guides provide the Kumar’s with compelling stories of the glaciers and fauna. The couple even stayed in the award winning Milford Sound Subaqua Hotel for two nights exploring the fiord’s sea bed and looking for blue cod, one of the regions endangered fish.

Air New Zealand allows you to carbon offset your airline trip.  Online travel insurance company WorldNomads.com founded The Footprints Network, as they believed “there is a moral obligation to give a little back to the communities in which we travel”. When someone purchases a policy with WorldNomads, they are asked to choose a project from a list to add a small donation.  The Ritz-Carlton introduced the Give Back Getaways  -  a variety of holiday options that allow visitors to join the hotel’s employees in half-day volun-tourism projects which make a difference for the local community. The Give Back Getaways offer was launched in 2008 but has expanded significantly over the years.

Positive thinking

Let’s think about tourism from a positive aspect, rather talking it down. Some say, ‘we can’t travel to New Zealand because of the distance and impact on the environment’. Well, Gregory Norris, who lectures at the Harvard School of Public Health, has created the carbon handprint. Rather than telling us what we are doing wrong, our carbon handprint tells us the sum of all the things we are doing right. The idea is that, if people realise how much difference they can make by adapting their behaviour only slightly, they might be encouraged to take some extra steps towards a greener life. Norris has a website, handprinter.org, which allows us to calculate our handprint and to pledge or confirm the ways in which we plan to enlarge it  -  all of which can be shared on Facebook. The implications for how we all travel in search of fun in the future are very obvious. It’s about a positive outlook rather talking down tourism.

It seems likely that a strengthened eco-ethical conscience is here to stay. It might only be a matter of time before all transport providers, travel agencies and hotels will have made a strong environmental policy part of their standard package. An eco-claim will be a threshold value: universal throughout the industry. In the past, it might have seemed like a lot of extra effort to care about the environment while on holiday – a time which should be relaxing and carefree, when we can legitimately be a bit less responsible than we are during the rest of the year. But there can be little doubt that the long term impact of so much political agitation about the planet’s health – the Kyoto Dynamic -   will be to a) pressurise tourists into being practically aware of whatever eco costs they are incurring and b) trigger every greater regulation in favour of cleaner services from the travel sector.

Ending inefficiency

What the government needs to do is too end the inefficiency of not being green. This needs penalties for those not conforming to eco-friendly practises. For innovators, it means being green is cheaper tan not being green. In a futures world, where oil becomes scare– its means efficiency gains, sustainable architecture and green credentials.

The eco-mind is what school children are being educated about. Too them it is as natural as social media or the mobile phone. In the future, know one will brag about guzzling resources or wasting energy, so be warned. On a concluding not, being green is not a trend anymore, it’s something that is mainstream which goes beyond 100% Pure New Zealand. Its means a green qualmark scheme that is compulsory as a driver of change.

 

For further details of the Eco Paradise scenario visit www.tourism2050.com

Dr. Ian Yeoman

Victoria Business School

Email: ian.yeoman@vuw.ac.nz